Case Study Case Study 1. The X-ray beam is often described in terms of quantity and quality. Identify some of the factors that affect x-ray beam quantity and quality and indicate how an increase or decrease in these factors affect quantity and quality. What effect does increasing mAs and kVp have on the total x-ray emission spectrum? Case study 2. what is the relationship between the kilovoltage peak and the average energy (keV) of the photons in the primary beam?