BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The deadly events of the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks on the United States (US) have led to a world where the danger of terrorism is now at the forefront of all country’s national and international security agenda. This attack set in motion a series of events that have changed the course of life across the length and breadth of the world; as terrorism is a global struggle which go beyond borders and creates mayhem. (Ross, 2011). With the accelerating speed of globalization and technological progression, changes in risk and terrorism have restructured the dynamics of the world. While some of these changes present new opportunities, some present many challenges, especially to national security.
In relation to the terrorist attack in the United States of America on the 11th September 2001, Peterson (2005) pointed out that four critical lessons are to be learned from that tragedy. The first is that, intelligence collection is everyone’s job; secondly, a culture of intelligence and collaboration is necessary to protect the United States from all types of crime and threats; thirdly, for intelligence to be effective, it should support the law enforcement agencies entire operation; and, lastly, crime prevention and deterrence should be based on all-source information gathering and analysis.
A philosophy of intelligence and cooperation is necessary to safeguard any state from crimes of all types. As a way forward, the police had to develop a policing theory that embraces intelligence as its foundation. The policing philosophy which encourages and stresses the use of intelligence as an effective tool in preventing crime is the Intelligence led policing model which originated in the United Kingdom. Faced with the challenge of high and violent crimes, Trinidad and Tobago also needs to overhaul its policing. In order to fight and reduce crime levels, the Trinidad and Tobago Police Service (TTPS) needs to find and apply an effective policing strategy. The adoption of the intelligence led policing concept may be an answer to the high crime rate in Trinidad and Tobago. Intelligence led policing, also known as intelligence driven policing, has been proved internationally to be one of the most effective policing models for reducing crime. This project will examine Intelligence Led Policing. This project examines existing literature covering the use of intelligence to prevent and combat crime, obtain a full and thorough understanding of its implementation which has led to successful crime prevention in other countries and it explores the meaning and uses of intelligence, provides examples of intelligence practices, and explores how to establish and maintain an intelligence capabilities.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
After the 1990 attempted coup d’état in Trinidad and Tobago, the country experienced a rise in organized and gang-related crime with a transnational dimension. In its International Narcotics Control Strategy Report for 2016, the U.S. Department of State noted that the proximity to South America and its vulnerable coasts make Trinidad and Tobago into “an ideal … cocaine and marijuana transshipment” point for the Caribbean, North American, and European markets.(INCSR, 2017) One can debate that the country’s close proximity to the South American region, which supplies a momentous amount of the world’s narcotics, has a connection to the rise in organized drug and gang-related activity experienced in Trinidad and Tobago since the unsuccessful coup d’état in 1990.
Although Trinidad and Tobago, a twin island nation with just over 1.3 million citizens, has not experienced the constant threat of terrorist attacks or other tenacious threats to security like other countries, there have been occurrences in the distant and recent past when a strong intelligence structure would have had helpful impact in reducing threats to the country. In the years after the attempted coup, the drug lord Nankissoon Boodram (also known as Dole Chadee) became a communal threat not only to Trinidad and Tobago but also to the Caribbean region. Described as a “premier trafficker” and as “one of the smartest in the Eastern Caribbean” by Jerome Harris, (the previous special agent in charge of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency’s Caribbean operations,) Boodram was one of the main actors in drug trafficking during the 1990s, and he seemed to be unbeatable until his subsequent arrest and later hanging in June 1999 (Johnson, 2012). Moving forward to 2016/2017, a more recent threat has emerged with the growth of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). Citizens of Trinidad and Tobago have been reported to have traveled to Syria to train and fight together with thousands from all over the world who have followed the call to join ISIS and support their fight. Demonstrating how the country has been enveloped in global terrorism, there have been confirmations of many individuals from Trinidad and Tobago who fall into this category, and who would be serious security risks should they return to the country, (Robles, 2016).
PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of the study is provide to a framework to assist the government for strategic and policy purposes and secondly allow the security sector to obtain tactical and operational advantage over criminals.
With the growing threat of terrorist attacks around the world and the possible return of ISIS fighters intelligence has become a necessity for Trinidad and Tobago to both alert and avert the wide-ranging contemporary security challenges that most scholars agree states face on a continuing basis. Overall, the desired end state for the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago should be the realization of, what Matei and Bruneau (2011) term, “professional intelligence systems” that function collaboratively with the domestic and transnational security sectors and are controlled and monitored via all three branches of the state. One such model or system that can used is Intelligence Led Policing. To ensure that Intelligence Led Policing is an equally effective, it would be beneficial to determine what lessons Trinidad and Tobago’s intelligence agencies can learn from other states that have had success in forming or reforming their domestic intelligence policing. In this regard, this research project will answer the following question: What template of a properly functioning Intelligence Led Policing (ILP) can Trinidad and Tobago pattern or emulate to counter terrorism effectively?
The research will focus on the following areas: reviewing intelligence led policing in United Kingdom, Australia and United States. This research project identifies the necessary elements required for the successful operation of ILP. The lessons from case studies of the United Kingdom, Australia and United States show that the introduction of ILP is important and will safeguard Trinidad and Tobago’s security.
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The crime situation in Trinidad and Tobago is overwhelming, and the public’s perception, both in and out of the country, is that governments’ ability, both past and present, to combat crime and violence within its borders has been failing, particularly in Trinidad more so than in Tobago. With this in mind, this research has significance for at least two audiences: the government of Trinidad and Tobago who requires intelligence for strategic and policy purposes and security sector practitioners who would benefit by gaining tactical and operational advantage over criminal elements.
In the public’s opinion, governments’ current and previous methods to combat crime have not been effective. Reports by international bodies and citizens suggest a perception of insecurity within the country (ISSAT, 2015). A re-focused intelligence agency can provide the government with the ability to, as Lowenthal (2012) indicates, “avoid strategic surprise.” An exploration of the best practices successfully employed by countries with similar circumstances will prove beneficial to the TTPS as the agency embarks on realigning its intelligence mission.
This research has significance for the overall security sector in the Trinidad and Tobago as it would provide models of intelligence led policing in other states and compare their successes and failures, which Trinidad and Tobago can match in structuring its own intelligence led policing. For the Trinidad and Tobago security sector, it provides insights on how intelligence led policing may contribute to strengthening local inter-agency coordination and cooperation in fighting terrorism.
Policing is dynamics and changes to meet the needs of the challenges of the modern world. There is a need for continuous research in the policing field to enable to police to effectively combat the threat posed by the criminal networks. Research has developed the model of ILP which is used by countries around the world to combat crime and terrorism which has proven to be successful and show that intelligence is the nucleus of ILP model.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Although there is virtually no literature that speaks to the business of intelligence, intelligence reforms, and the relationship between intelligence and the security sector in Trinidad and Tobago—there exists an abundance of literature that focuses on this topic in other states. Therefore, this literature review focuses on the material related to a general understanding of intelligence and ILP. Additionally, the review looks at the success intelligence-led policing in United Kingdom and Australia,
LITERATURE SEARCH STRATEGY
The majority of the material for this research project was obtain via Google Scholar ,EBSCO, online books and National Library, Phrases and terms such as ‘intelligence’, ‘intelligence led policing’, ‘history of intelligence led policing’, ‘implementation of intelligence led policing’, ‘intelligence gathering’, ‘crime analysis’ were used to obtain the material in the search engines.
THEORETICAL /CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Every profession or discipline has its own specialized language and key concepts. In the police environment, terms such as “modus operandi” which means a way of behaving or doing something that is typical of a person or group are common. This implies that in order to participate or work effectively in a particular environment one needs to familiarize him/herself with the language used in that environment (Maree, 2007). The theoretical concepts in the next sub-paragraphs form the base of this study.
Intelligence led policing
Intelligence led policing is the application of criminal intelligence analysis as an objective decision-making tool in order to facilitate crime reduction and prevention through effective policing strategies and external partnership projects drawn from an evidential base (Ratcliffe, 2003).
Crime intelligence is information about crime that has been systematically processed into a form that can be readily accessed and used to track down criminals and combat crime (Zinn, 2010).
O’Connor (2005), defines crime analysis as the process of evaluating data for reliability, validity, and relevance; integrating and analyzing it; and converting the product of this effort into a meaningful whole, which includes assessment of events and the implications of the information collected. Additionally Ratcliffe (2007), describes crime analysis as the systematic study of crime and disorder problems as well as other police-related issues, including socio-demographic, spatial, and temporal factors to assist the police in criminal apprehension, crime and disorder reduction, crime prevention, and evaluation.
The Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners defines “information” as knowledge or facts about someone or something (Rundell & Fox, 2005).
O’Connor (2005), defines “intelligence” as “secret knowledge of the enemy, a kind of knowledge which stands independently of the means by which it is obtained and the process by which it is distilled”. Champagne (2009) describes intelligence as the collection and analysis of information.
Champagne (2009) describes an intelligence cycle as a process consisting of five steps, namely, planning, collecting, processing, analysing, and distribution of information.
LITERATURE REVIEW OF KEY CONCEPTS AND VARIABLES
Definition of Intelligence
One body of literature endeavors to define and conceptualize intelligence, thus resulting in many definitions of the term ‘intelligence’ in the scholarly work. Further, it is essential to establish working definitions of intelligence that will draw boundaries for the discussions and arguments presented in this research. Peter Gill and Mark Phythian (2006) argue that intelligence is an “umbrella term,” which makes it difficult to obtain a specific definition. As such, an instructive starting point is Michael Warner’s (2009) argument that the term has two specific meanings by two schools of thought in scholarly discussion: “information for decision makers” emanating from all sources about anything “that helps leaders decide what to do about their surroundings,” and secondly that intelligence is “warfare by quieter means.” Warner (2009) further explains, “one definition emphasizes intelligence as something that informs decision making,” while the other “sees intelligence as activity that assists both the informing and executing of decisions.” Both definitions prove to be helpful as they communicate to the discussion of intelligence templates as they both speak to intelligence as an enabler to inform and to act. Lowenthal (2012) gives more structure to defining intelligence. He describes “a working concept” of intelligence as “the process by which specific types of information important to national security are requested, collected, analyzed, and provided to policy makers; the products of that process; the safeguarding of these processes and this information by counterintelligence activities; and the carrying out of operations as requested by lawful authorities.” Thus, Lowenthal (2012) provides a wide-ranging scope with which one can better understand the multiple facets that comprise intelligence. George Cristian Major (2011), however, while in agreement with Lowenthal (2012), attributes priority to the actionable aspect of intelligence. He notes that in order to disrupt or preclude threats to its national security, intelligence as actionable measures takes precedence over intelligence as an enabler of policy. In defining intelligence, it is necessary to discuss the cycle of intelligence that truly encompasses the range of the intelligence process leading to actionable results or decisions about policy. Gill and Phythian (2006) acknowledge the utility of the intelligence cycle in explaining the process—“planning and direction, collection, processing, all-source analysis and production, and dissemination.” Lowenthal (2012), however, goes further, using the term “identifying requirements” instead of planning and direction and by adding two more steps to the cycle—“consumption and feedback.” He explains that discussions about the cycle usually end at dissemination but argues that policy makers after reviewing the product and weighing their options may have some input into evolving the product. This makes the feedback step vital, as it allows intelligence practitioners to gauge their policy makers’ expectations and thereby refine the intelligence product accordingly. Conversely, Gill and Phythian (2006), while agreeing with Lowenthal (2012) in principle, advocate a different approach arguing that terming the process as a cycle does not adequately convey the realities and dynamics of the intelligence process. Their argument is to conceive the process as a “funnel of causality” that facilitates change in the external environment. The change feeds into the top of the funnel and goes through the intelligence process resulting in policy or action at the bottom of the funnel. The process repeats when the policy or action generates feedback.
For Florina Cristiana Matei and Thomas C. Bruneau (2011), however, the concept of intelligence as a cycle is more representative of the realities in the business of intelligence. They view policy makers as “the ‘alpha’ and ‘omega’ of the intelligence function,” because they are the ones that “start the cycle through requirements and guidance and keep it working by providing feedback, they also end the cycle by … making relevant national security decisions and policies” (see Figure 1)
Figure 1 Intelligence Cycle
The preceding discussion on defining intelligence has utility when considering the government of Trinidad and Tobago’s reorganization of its intelligence model in the TTPS. It would be prudent, therefore, for the TTPS to have a working definition of intelligence that captures its new mandate in the ILP model. Lowenthal’s definition is in alignment with the ILP model.
Intelligence-Led Policing (ILP)
Within this section of the literature review, the importance of intelligence to law enforcement’s effectiveness will be explored. The literature review will address security sector strategies that enhance the relationship between intelligence and law enforcement.
In Jerry Ratcliffe’s (2016) argument for intelligence-led policing (ILP), he indicated that traditional policing theory suggests that more arrests and detections post criminal acts will deter future acts from occurring; however, he believes that the effect of this method is usually increased burdens on all levels of the criminal justice system, as staffing is not always sufficient. Intelligence-led policing, Ratcliffe (2016) contends, that it is better suited to address the issues of the security sector. He redefined ILP as emphasizing “analysis and intelligence as key to an objective decision-making framework that prioritizes crime hot spots, repeat victims, prolific offenders, and criminal groups.” Ratcliffe (2016) argues that ILP is a developing management theory stressing on a strategic collaborative effort at varying levels, and it seeks to facilitate “crime and harm reduction, disruption and prevention through strategic and tactical management, deployment, and enforcement.”
Since ILP has both disruption and prevention goal as part of its main concepts, it may be well equipped to facilitate security sector coordination and dissemination with intelligence agencies. In reviewing the New Jersey State Police’s Practical Guide to Intelligence-Led Policing, David A. Licate (2015) notes that ILP allows “improved intelligence operations to aid in understanding changes in the operating environment” so that the security sector has the ability to redeploy quickly on dynamic circumstances. Yet there are challenges. Licate (2015) further explains that the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACF), in a 2007 conference, stressed that intelligence sharing could not be maximized to its full capabilities as police executives, in some instances, viewed their departments as “too small or too remote to participate in intelligence sharing,” and some police officers continue to be confused by the intelligence process. Essentially, this discourse in the literature suggests that there are sufficient grounds for collaborative efforts between the Law Enforcement Agencies (LEA), and such collaborations can help to bridge the gap of misperception so that law enforcement can benefit from ILP. In terms of transparency, Ratcliffe (2016) notes that opponents of ILP fear the concept of intelligence driven operations, because the very use of the word intelligence has adverse insinuations. In discussing intelligence, he argues, there is usually a sense of “secretive, subversive, and possibly illegal” actions that come to mind. The reality is, however, that ILP “develops data and information analysis into crime intelligence processes to the point where … the collection and analysis of intelligence has become central to contemporary policing,” explains Ratcliffe (2016). Thus, one can argue that there is common ground for the Law Enforcement Authorities (LEA) to collaborate on matters of collection and analysis as it pertains to the security of Trinidad and Tobago against crime and terrorism.
Other scholars such as Mike Maguire and Tim John (2006) describe ILP as “a strategic, future-oriented and targeted approach” in security and note that as an alternative of employing traditional reactive policing measures, this approach places emphasis on “analysis and management of problems and risks,” which will result in the prevention of criminal acts and the identification of criminals of such acts. Furthermore, Karen Bullock (2013) indicated that the perception of ILP is a model that develops systems to obtain and analyze information used to identify, disrupt, and arrest repeat offenders and criminal organizations. The ILP strategy has promise for law enforcement reforms in Trinidad and Tobago.
This is a study of the application of intelligence led policing concept which has sought to understand how the concept is applied in preventing terrorism by the TTPS. The study was based on ILP process at the ground level where the actual policing takes place, and where policing, is practically implemented. The purpose of conducting a study at such a “basic” level is that the battle against crime and terrorism is lost or won at station levels. Furthermore the success or failure of a concept depends on its implementation or operationalization which takes place at local police station level. This chapter outlines the methodology for this study, detailing the procedures and techniques of research, and analysis.